Thursday, April 28, 2016

Ministry plans for Theater command, Combining tri services




Ministry plans for Theater command, Combining tri services 


Defense ministry exploring options of combining tri services, to act against the threat jointly with the support from air naval and ground forces. Currently defense ministry had only one tri service command known as the Andaman command, whose area of responsibility comprises all along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and waters around. Ministry plans for separate command to counter Pakistan and China. Each focuses their own speculated threat only.

IAF is the one who slowly expanding it's capabilities by wide spreading their missions from initial air defense into deep strike, CAS and observation missions. This also solves the army's requirements of dedicated aviation wing, who currently asks for dedicated attack and troop transporting helicopters.

Defense ministry recently conducted the armed forces commanders conference, and asks the opinion of the commanders about integrating the military commands into one wing. Sources confirmed that Commanders also given green light to the ministry's proposal of working under one umbrella. Earlier ministry planned a Joint chief of staffs to give single point of advice to the Government about the military activities.

Joining the forces into one command significantly reduces the reaction time and give additional support to the deployed troops in very short time. They can help each others in combat search and rescue mission, close air support mission and Infil, exfil operations.

India need two commands to face the Chinese and Pakistani threat simultaneously, Each requires specialized requirements to counter the threat, as in the Chinese front India need CAS and Air superiority fighters in large numbers. while Pakistani front India need large number of troops armored columns and  Artillery's. This difference is comes due to the geographical conditions, The Rajastan frontier is plain, while North east had mountains and rough trains.

The commanders also insisted that Forces need to be vigil at any time, since the threats are advancing day by day with new equipment's and manpower. To counter the threat, India needs to act wisely by selecting exact platform to counter the threat. Like in asymmetric warfare India need troops and observation UAV's, for assassination mission they need armed drones, for manned mission they need good air cover and quick reaction forces for support.

The theater command is in discussion since many years. Once it sanctioned to form, The systematic works takes more than five years, by connecting all assets into one. Currently there is a huge number of protocols to request the Air force for close support to the ground troops.  




Wednesday, April 27, 2016

How Meteor boosts Fighter jets performance in aerial Combat




How Meteor boosts Fighter jets performance in aerial Combat



There is many long range air to air missiles available in the market, yet the Meteor is the known best missile in the air combat. The main reason is not only the long range, but its modern guidance systems and data links makes Meteor is the most successful missile in the modern aviation history. Nations like US and Russia also had long range missile, however they were lags behind meteor's performance.

The famous aviation blogger hushkit shortlisted Gripen as second in the top ten list of worlds best BVR fighters, as many surprised the entry of Gripen in second place right after the Raptor. As the title already suggested it's Top 10 BVR fighter. The Gripen comes second because of its meteor missile. Gripen is the single engine medium weight aircraft, developed to perform multi role missions.

So far Sweden supplied Gripen to many nations, due to it's low cost, higher sortie rate and low operating cost. In India it was rejected due to many reason, which include single engine and not good enough characteristic for air to ground strike mission. Gripen is the only aircraft who gets the Meteor missile in full configuration as of now, which include mid course update using the data link and active seeker usage in terminal phase.

Meteor missile is the 300km long range missile, can autonomously find and kill the target in long range, allows the launch platform safe to exit from the threat zone. This makes the enemy platform had no idea about the origin of the launch platform.

All the modern European fighters soon to be equipped with the Meteor missile, makes the European fighters can dominate the future battle with the Meteor missile. Typhoon and Rafale is in final phase of meteor integration. Once they too get the missile as operational status. Rafale comes in second place with the RBE 2 AESA Radar, along with the Low Radar cross section and the Spectra EW.

The Above said combination changes entire battlefield, The Rafale saw the target first, use the LPI radar to track the target, guide the Meteor till the terminal phase, and fall back to the safe zone. This makes the enemy has no idea who is coming, who is hitting,and how to escape.

Modern missiles are more smart, There is no fault reported in recent days, As many nations used to bring down the UAV's and the recent Su 24 shot down using the Turkey F 16 armed with AIM 120. The verbal word dog fighting almost end, after the active guided missiles entered the in the battles. Means the maneuverability of the fighter aircraft becomes useless in these days.

The US uses the AIM 120 D whose range is about some 160 kilometers, AIM 120D also had similar capabilities like the Meteor. However it's just some 160 km range. The AIM 120 D is operational in few air forces like RAF, IDF and UK Air force. while it's predecessor is used by many countries which include Pakistan.  Hushkit gives first rank to Raptor, Since it had stealth characteristics and LPI Radar. which makes very difficult to lock the Raptor by enemy fighter jets. AIM 120 D is the main weapon of Raptor.

The Russian had a long range active air to air missile, called R 33, it uses a combination of semi-active radar homing for initial acquisition and mid-course updates, and inertial navigation to reach the target at extreme range. The Zaslon phased array radar of MiG-31 allows four missiles to be guided simultaneously at separate targets. However compared to the meteor's  mid course update and active radar homing characteristics, the R 33 short in legs. Russians is developing a new generation air to air missile based on the R 33 called as R 37, having characteristics like Meteor, however longer range and speed.

In India the MKI uses the R 77 BVR missile as main weapon, The MKI radar is long range detection capability, however the missile range capped at some 80 kilometers. IAF also uses the R 27 missile for long range, that's some 120 kilometer. India once asked the MBDA, about the possibility of adding the meteor missile in the MKI. However the status is unknown, mostly the plan was withdrawn.

Japan is going to be emerged as a world's best missile operator once they made the JNAAM with the support from MBDA and Mitsubishi, the missile gets Japanese modern seeker and MBDA's modern missile technologies. Once the missile ready Japan and UK among the two nations who operates the modern long range missile.

India will get the Meteor with the Rafale package and R 37 with the PAK FA package.  



Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Blockading the Gwadar Port




Blockading the Gwadar Port


The Indian navy exploring new options to blockading the Chinese built Pakistani economic port in Gwadar, which is currently being in final phase of construction. Blocking the supply routes is the known strategic key to attain superiority in the conflict. In all the previous war Indian Navy provide better support to the Indian armed forces by blockading and destroying the Pakistani economic supply routes.

Pakistan shifts it's major shipping lane slight away from Karachi due to the Indian navy's superiority in the region. The Gwadar port is currently being in construction with the Chinese assistance to provide substantial shipping route to Pakistan. Gwadar port is closely guarded by the Pakistani navy, whose western naval command situated few meters away from the commercial port.

China is also assisting the port construction and laying fast lanes to access major Pakistani cities, The port expected to be operational before 2020. After that Pakistan use the Gwadar as main economical shipping port by reducing the Karachi port's economical activities.

Compared to Karachi, Gwadar is located far away from the Indian navy's missile range, that navy earlier had upper hand against the Pakistani navy's infrastructure in Karachi. Karachi is the first victim of many war that India and Pakistan fought earlier. Karachi is some 800 kilometers away from the Naval base in Mumbai, while the Gwadar is some 1200 kilometer away from Mumbai, which is very difficult to maintain full spectrum naval blockade.

Pakistan also gets some modern missiles for it's navy, The air launched C 802 AShM and the YJ 62 Coastal missile batteries. Those long range high subsonic sea skimming missiles are the major threat to the Indian navy, if IN tries for a naval blockade close to Karachi and in Gwadar. Those missiles had far strike range, reportedly over 300 kilometers.

So IN needs to keep away from some 500 kilometers off from Pakistani shores. Pakistani air force also operates one JF 17 squadron dedicated for maritime strike role, carrying two C 802 missiles per aircraft. PAF also in talks with the Russian's to supply one Su 35 S squadron to replace the older JF 17, since the JF 17 range is very small and its a single engine light aircraft.

Another is the Pakistani navy Agosta class submarines, The PN's Agosta 90B's are modern and capable to launch Exocet anti shipping cruise missiles. PN operates three modern Agosta 90B's. In comparison, Pakistan navy is the least equipped force in the Pakistani armed forces. The reason why they planning to add another eight modern S 20 SSK's from China.

So if IN wants to put a complete Naval blockade on  both Karachi and Gwadar, they must keep away some 500 km off from Pakistani shores. Since those AShM threats are usually in large scale. So navy can think about the Submarines alone.

The Navy's western fleet had better surface fleets, as well as submarines too. INS Vikramaditya is the flag ship of western naval command operates along with modern Kolkata class destroyers, Delhi class Destroyers and Talwar class frigates. It also had newly upgraded Kilo class submarines and modern Kalvari class submarines. Western command also had better ASW platforms like P8, Tu 142 and IL 38 SD's.

IN's fleet operates as a group only, as they performed the same since decades. All the above said warships had better destruction capability, however Barak 8 is the only better air defense systems in the fleet which is employed in the Kolkata class ships.

It's very hard to penetrate the IN's battle group with PN's Agosta's. Since IN operates few Submarines and ASW plane to hunt the Pakistani submarines in first wave of attack. Also new upgrades in the IN Ships with Towed array sonar and Mareech ASW system provide better cover for the fleet from PN's submarine threat.

As already said, IN needs to operate 500 km off from Pakistani shore, due to the AShM threat, also IN had no missiles that can strike such long range. So the only essential option is the MiG 29 K with Kh 31 AShM. Those MiG's can go close to some 100 km near Pakistani shores. Since Pakistan will not have any modern long range air defense missiles, Their JF 17 is short in legs, F 16 maybe busy to dealing with the IAF.

INS Vikramaditya can launch 20 MiG 29 K against the PN's surface targets. while keeping two to four for combat air patrol over the fleet. Vikramditya can capable to perform more than three such sorties per day. MiG 29 K is the only available option to blockade the Pakistani ports in future conflict.

IN desperately need Nirbhay missiles in it's fleet to perform cruise missile strike on Gwadar port, And it's clear when the Gwadar is operational, Navy too get long range cruise missile Nirbhay in its fleet. 



Monday, April 25, 2016

Pakistani Tactical nuclear missiles deployed close to Indian Borders




Pakistani Tactical nuclear missiles deployed close to Indian Borders


Satellite pictures confirmed that atleast six Nasr Tactical missiles deployed in Gujranwala, Pakistan. Each Nasr can carry four missiles. The deployment consists of four launcher comprising twenty four missiles, ammunition bunkers and support systems. Gujranwala is 80km off from Indian borders, where Nasr's full range is 60 kilometers.

The tactical missile deployment recently get operational status, after series of ground works completed to house those missiles. Recent upgrades in Google imagery unveiled the new constructions and operational deployment of those missiles. Since they were placed in the open field for an induction ceremony.

Normally those launchers kept under fortified hangers. which keeps alive those missiles from airstrikes. The satellite pictures reveals two large hardened garages in the suspected area. which can keep three launchers in one garage.  both of them interconnected each other and the ammunition bunkers situated few meters away from the launch pad.

The base still in expansion, suggests new constructions and launch pads inside the compound. the main launch area has two launch pads. while another area had five launch pads connected with five separate garages. Each of those garages can accommodate two Nasr batteries. Satellite pictures also clearly shows Tyre marks between the launch pad and garage shows regular exercises has been happening in the base.

Another complex in the same compound looks like base administration buildings, buildings for troop accommodation, command and control centers. Which gives quick access to the crew to reach the launch pads and garage area.

Nasr is considered as a nuclear missile, used to counter the Indian cold start doctrine, The doctrine explains quick mobilization of massive Indian army close to the International border, further step inside Pakistan.

Pakistan uses the Nasr missile for reliability since it's shorter range that means sixty kilometers. Nasr is single stage missile, and carries upto five kilotons of nuclear warhead.

The above information are good enough to prove that Pakistan must use the nuclear missiles. in case of any border conflict with Pakistan. Those missiles can be used, if Indian soldiers march inside Pakistan. Those missiles are well close to Indian cities that means hundred kilometer from Jammu and 80 kilometers from Amritsar.

India have better option to counter the Pakistani tactical nuclear threats.To counter the Nasr launch IAF should conduct a preemptive air strike on those location. Since the deployed area is small and can be marked using GPS/LGB guided bombs. IAF need bunker busting bombs to destroy those launchers. Since they were kept under hardened concrete shelters.

Normal High Explosive heavy bombs will not penetrate such shelters. IAF may use the Jaguar fighters from Amritsar Air force base. IAF already had few Bunker busting LGB's bought from US major Lockheed Martin. Some reports mentions IAF bough one hundred bunker busting GBU 28 Paveway III LBG bombs. However there is no details available about additional procurement.

It's believed, few of the home made Sudharshan LGB's also had penetration capability to strike hardened shelters. By assessment IAF need more than twenty five Jaguar bomber each armed with three LGB's to destroy the key infrastructure in the Gujranwala Tactical deployment base.

Below is the Google map of Gujranwala Tactical deployment base.



Thanks to Raj 47



Sunday, April 24, 2016

The next step, Stocking anti armour missiles




The next step, Stocking anti armour missiles


IAF found way good moves to provide close air support to the ground troops, by employing precision guided munitions and glide bombs for stand off strike. now they looking for anti armour missile for destroying enemy armored vehicles in the battlefield, IAF already signed a contract with US to supply more than 1000 Hell fire missiles, which going to be employed in the Apache gunships. 

During the Kargil, India found that there is no proper munition to strike the enemy column, They used large amount of dumb bombs, which is not effective, while later they adopted guided muntions which shows good effective. Even they were procured from the west. Since the Indian arsenal comprised by Russian munitions which is not useful in such situation, they were heavy in size however unguided dumb bombs.

IAF found that, guided munition is the future and stop producing more dumb bombs, Instead of that they built guidance kit, like GPS guided or Laser guided heads for bombs. which guide the bomb into the target. Here too those PGM - Precision guided munition can strike stationary targets only. like key building and supply dumps. The LGB- Laser guided munition can strike less mobile systems like artillery's and others. 

For high mobile targets like Tanks and infantry fighting vehicles, one need a guided missile to chase and kill the target. Mostly tanks can travel at the speed of some 40 km as average. It's hard to bomb them with exiting LGB or PGM. So here wee need a anti armour missile to strike such high mobile targets.

Nag is the missile who uses the millimeter wave seeker to attack enemy armored vehicles. Just like all other counterparts like Hell fire and Spear. mmW seeker can guide the missile exactly where the tank is and whats it's position. Missiles employed with mmW seekers are highly reliable, however shorter range, due to it's spectrum characteristics.

Indian Nag program is running in slow but steady. However they can be employed in Indian made helicopters like LCH and armed Dhruv only. The upcoming Apache's comes with Hell fire missiles, However so far there were no good such missile in fixed wing aircraft. Since IAF's fighters are not have such characteristics to launch such missiles.

However one IAF jet can employ anti armour missiles, Recently upgraded Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft is the only IAF fighter can employ such missile. Mirage can carry upto six anti armour missile in two hard points. Those anti armour missiles are less in weight compared to other missiles, they were barely weights some 60 kilo grams. Mirage with multiple ejector rack can hold upto three missile in one port. However IAF didn't have any such missiles for Mirages, Since they plans to use the mirages for launching guided munitions and glide bombs only. 

Rafale is the only other aircraft can carry anti armour missiles, as French already offered the latest Brimstone missile with the Rafale package.  Brimstone comes with dual seeker for high probability of detection it uses laser guidance and mmW for high probability of intercepting fast moving vehicles. Same like how Hell fire missile operates.

IAF need large number of such missiles for Rafale. Since the Rafale can carry more payload and higher sortie rates. for better close air support mission IAF may use the Apache helicopters. However in contested airspace IAF need to use the fixed wing aircraft's for aircraft survivability. Since helicopters can be shot downed very easily inside contested airspace.

The Rafale comes with better weapon packages like guided munitions, anti armour missiles, and better air to air missiles. The IAF uses the Flankers for stand off strikes. As it's soon to get 100km range glide bombs from Israel.

It's better to see, IAF may overcomes from the past issues and now looks formidable force with pretty decent air to ground arsenal too.



Saturday, April 23, 2016

Indo-Thai Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT)

Indo-Thai Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT)


INS Karmuk, an indigenously built Missile Corvette based at the Andaman and Nicobar Command, alongwith a Dornier Maritime Patrol Aircraft, are participating in the 22nd Indo-Thai Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT), scheduled from 19-27 Apr 16 in the Andaman Sea.

Maritime interaction between India and Thailand has been growing steadily with frequent port visits, participation in multilateral exercises and training exchanges. Under the broad ambit of this strong maritime relationship, the two navies have been carrying out CORPATs along the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) twice a year since 2005, with the aim of keeping this vital part of the Indian Ocean Region safe and secure for commercial shipping and international trade. 

The CORPAT has also strengthened understanding and interoperability between the navies and facilitated institution of measures to prevent unlawful activities at sea as well as conduct Search and Rescue (SAR) operations.

The 22nd edition of the CORPAT would include participation of one warship and one Maritime Patrol Aircraft from both sides with the Closing Ceremony being held at Port Blair, Headquarters Andaman and Nicobar Command (HQANC) from 25-27 Apr 16. The Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Andaman and Nicobar Command, Vice Admiral BK Verma, AVSM and Rear Admiral Warongkorn Osathanonda, Commander, Phangnga Naval Base, 3rd Naval Area Command, of the Royal Thailand Navy will be the Senior Officers at the Closing Ceremony.

India and Thailand have traditionally enjoyed a close and friendly relationship covering a wide spectrum of activities and interactions, which have strengthened over the years. The 22nd edition of CORPAT would bolster the already strong bilateral relationship between the two nations and contribute significantly to enhancing maritime security in the region.

- PIB

Who is Guarding the Pakistani terrorists in UN council




Who is Guarding the Pakistani terrorists in UN council


Pakistan repeatedly attacking India, since the ceasefire agreement from 1999. Even last few years the attacks went more lethal. However it's a surprise how Pakistan keeps its stage strong in United Nations.Pakistan had a good company in the UN who's name is PRC. China is the only nation who repeatedly uses VETO to save Pakistan's face from International sanctions.

26/11 is the worst terrorist attack in Indian soil, who killed 166 peoples which include many foreigners. This one was executed by Pakistani intelligence wing and ISI trained terrorists. India investigated this attack with some foreign support and clearly collected good enough evidences connecting Pakistan governments involvement in this attack.

It's a surprise that there is no bill passed against Pakistan in UN. However due to the pressure from US. Pakistan arrests few suspects that India pointed. Few years after they were released. saying the Pakistani court there is no enough evidence to accuse them. He is now freely roaming in the Pakistani streets.

India bring this issue into UN, majority of nations supported the move, and stand with the Indian resolution. China is the only one who veto-ed the resolution and gives a cover to those LeT terrorists. Lakhvi is the master mind behind the 26/11 and he is a close aide to Hafeez Saeed the terrorist who founded many terrorist organization which include LeT.

With the pressure from US and other European nations, UN announced Hafeez saeed as a most wanted terrorist. US also announced $10 million ransom on Hafeez head. However he will be free in Pakistan with China's support who keeps the Pakistan away from sanctions.

In the recent days, India also brought up the Pathonkot attack into UN, and asks for a international investigation on this. Again China intervened the resolution and used the VETO. here Pakistan's face once again saved by China.

ADB is known as Asian development bank, who gives loan to Asian countries to develop their states. US, EU and many Asian nations among the members of ADB. India requested few hundred millions from ADB to develop India's north east regions like Arunachal and Sikkim. China is also a key member in the ADB who blocked the Indian request. However Japan comes into the game and provide finance assistance to develop Arunachal and Sikkim.

The recent news is about Masood Azhar, who is also a key terrorist who founded the terrorist organization like Jaish e Muhammad. Who also played key role in the 26/11 attacks. Due to International pressure Pakistan performed a house arrest on him, while he roaming in the Pakistani streets without any issues. India brings this matter into UN and asks for International ban on his terrorists organization.

China comes in the UN security council and veto-ed the Indian resolution. , India has slammed the use of "hidden veto" and demanded accountability, saying the world body's general members are never informed of the reason for not acceding to requests for sanctioning terrorists.

"The procedures of unanimity and anonymity of the Al Qaeda, Taliban and ISIS Sanctions Committees need to be revisited. The procedures of unanimity and anonymity result in a lack of accountability," India's Permanent Representative to the UN Ambassador Syed Akbaruddin told the UN Security Council in an open debate on 'Threats to International Peace and Security Caused by Terrorist Acts' on Thursday.

US is the only country who sanctioned Masood Azhar and his organization. US treasury is prohibiting Americans from "engaging in any transactions" with the Pakistan-based militant and JeM.

It's the China who keeping the Pakistan's face in UN otherwise most of the terrorist organization in Pakistan has been banned by UNSC. the sanctions absolutely cripples the organizations wealth and thinking twice before attacking India.



Friday, April 22, 2016

DRDO Plans maritime mission onboard C 295




DRDO Plans maritime mission onboard C 295


State firm DRDO plans to modify the C 295 military transport aircraft into a multi mission maritime aircraft to meet the requirement of Navy and Coast guards medium maritime patrol aircraft. The Navy plans to add new generation maritime patrol aircraft to boost the surveillance capabilities in Indian EEZ replacing the older Il 38 SD.

DRDO plans to integrate the existing maritime surveillance radar onboard the upcoming  C 295 Aircraft. Which TATA gets license from Air Bus to produce them in India. DRDO already successfully integrated the Airborne AESA radar onboard the Brazilian Embraer. Which is going to be inducted into the air force before the end of this year.

Navy already floated an RFI which focusing medium range patrol aircraft, where Lockheed's SC 130 and Swedish Swordfish responded. However state firm DRDO offers the state of art home made maritime surveillance radar. whose ground version already operational in various naval stations across India and friendly nations.

DRDO facilitates the C 295 MMMA into many roles, MMMA stands for Multi mission maritime aircraft. Which can perform

  • Maritime and pollution surveillance
  • Search and Rescue
  • Cargo and Personnel transportation and
  • Air Ambulance

The primary maritime surveillance can be achieved with the state of art airborne maritime radar, which can work along with the integrated coastal surveillance system for better surveillance and real time data transmission with friendly units. The Radar can perform search and track mission, who keep an eye on the targeted vessel. Also Classifies it's model and operator, identifying whether it's friendly or hostile, and provide communication support to friendlies in network denied zones.

With the support of satcom link, the C 295 can communicate with the base operating center and receive real time information from either base or friendly ships. The SATCOM link connected with existing navy's communication satellite INSAT.

Not only for Navy, Coast guard also keen to procure modern maritime patrol aircraft. with the same above capability. However it's highly unlikely Coast guard may receive the C 295 based MMMA. while Navy's primary requirement include underwater detection system for anti submarine warfare, which the C 295 MMMA can't.

As per Indian orders, Air force plans to induct more than 56 C 295. where initial 18 comes directly from Air bus plant, while all future numbers will be produced in India under TATA's plant. Air force already planning to induct a gunship version to provide close air support to the ground troops by adding 30mm cannon and missile launching racks.

C 295 recently spotted in HAL air port Bangalore. Suggesting that DRDO and HAL team exploring the options to build modified C 295 to suits Air force and Coast Guard requirements.  

There is a Maritime patrol aircraft available in the market based on the C 295,Navy's like Chile and Portugal already operating them. and it does have anti submarine capabilities too. The maritime variant of C 295 aka Persuader also had four outer hard points to launch anti shipping missiles.



Thursday, April 21, 2016

Naval Commanders' to focus on Security Challenges in IOR

Naval Commanders' to focus on Security Challenges in IOR


A three day Naval Commanders’ Conference is scheduled to be held at New Delhi from 21 Apr 2016. The conference is being held in the wake of the very successful International Fleet review (IFR) held by the Navy at Visakhapatnam in Feb 2016, apart from a number of other notable operational activities such as the first Combined Commanders’ Conference on board Vikramaditya in Dec 15.

The Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral RK Dhowan will chair the conference to review various aspects involving operations, acquisition of assets, personnel and logistics issues. The conference (spread over three days) will primarily focus on reviewing the combat readiness and operational preparedness of the Navy including coastal security, to address the dynamic security challenges in the IOR.

Hon’ble Defence Minister Shri Manohar Parrikar would address and interact with the Naval Commanders on the opening day of the conference. The conference will also provide an opportunity to the Naval Commanders’ to interact with MoD officials wherein relevant issues to further military synergy will be discussed.

During the conference, Naval Commanders’ will review the timelines for capital inductions of the Navy in consonance with the ‘Make in India’ initiative which is aligned with the Indian Navy’s guiding principles of self-reliance and indigenization. 

The major infrastructure upgrades of the Navy with special emphasis on Aviation assets will also be reviewed. The Commanders shall also delve on various aspects of the Navy’s roadmap for the future such as the key technology enablers, improving logistics and the numerous initiatives to further strengthen cyber security in the Navy.

An important focus issue of the conference would also be to review the numerous measures taken to improve the service and living conditions of sailors and civilian personnel. The year 2016 has been earmarked as the ‘Year of the Civilian Personnel’ and accordingly, schemes to improve quality of life and service conditions within the Navy will be reviewed during the conference.

- Indian Navy

Vietnam expected to receive Brahmos missile




Vietnam expected to receive Brahmos missile


Vietnam Peoples Navy is the first foreign customer who expected to receive the world's lethal anti shipping cruise missile Brahmos. Sources confirmed that, the contract would be finalized before the end of this year.  Both Russia and India agrees to export the Missile to Vietnam who is a friendly nation to both Nations.

The same source also said that, Air launched version of Brahmos A already completed the ground trails. the airborne carriage trails commenced soon by following the final test launch scheduled by end of this year. The Brahmos A program almost delayed by more than a year, where DRDO and HAL said test launch may occur in end of 2015.    

Vietnam is the most pro Russian country who relies on Soviet and Russia for it's military needs, who also threatened by the Chinese with the disputed Island issue. Vietnam requesting the Brahmos missiles for it's front line naval ships, who currently using older Styx missile, Vietnam operates more than six Molniya class missile corvette's. Similar like Indian Navy's veer class missile corvette. Vietnam plans to replace those Styx missiles with Brahmos missile.

Sources said, Vietnam requesting the Brahmos since years, when the official talks started in early 2013, Later the talks actively progressed by both Indian and Russian officials. Since 51% of the missiles stakes under Indian custody, India needs to take the final decision. However India also willingly to share the Brahmos to Vietnam, after Vietnam given few of the oil fields to Indian state firm ONGC.

China protested the Vietnamese move of giving oil fields to India, saying "transferring rights in the disputed Island to foreign country make bigger problems". Refusing the Chinese threat, ONGC get the contract from Vietnam to explore the oil deposits. who already stated working on the fields.

India revamped it's relationship with Vietnam later 2000 only, However which creates stronger basement to counter Chinese threat. The relationship went another level in later years, as once the Indian foreign minister openly said that " Vietnam is one of the Pillar of India's act east Policy ".

The current government keen to expand the relationship into higher level  and hosted the Vietnamese Prime minister in India early 2014. During the meet Indian PM offered the Brahmos missile to Vietnam, also expressed deeper maritime relationship with Vietnamese Navy. In this field both navy's conduct regular port visits, Joint patrols and Naval exercise.

Indian Govt also allowed the navy to provide assistance and training to Vietnam navy to work with newly acquired Kilo class submarine from Russia. Also given $100 million credit line to buy new warships from India. India is in final talks to supply four large patrol vessel to Vietnamese navy. as Indian PM promised in earlier 2014.

Vietnam operates six modern kilo class submarines and few Russian frigates and missile corvette's. all those are modernized with newer Klub missiles. Vietnam also operates K 300 P Bastion coastal missile battery, The missile used in the K300 is the Oniks missile, predecessor of Brahmos missile.  




Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Caesar front running for Army's Truck mounted Artillery




Caesar front running for Army's Truck mounted Artillery


Indian army had a requirement of more than hundred's of truck mounted 155mm 52 cal artillery's for it's strike corps and new mountain strike corps. Under the artillery project, Army looks to induct range of artillery systems, like towed, self propelled and now this truck mounted. Like other procurement's, this truck mounted artillery too comes under make in India program.

For this project vendors from all over the world requested to provide information about the respected system to Indian army evaluation team. The French teamed with Ashok Leyland and L&T offered the Caesar System, South Africa teamed with TATA offered Denel, Serbia teamed with OFB and BMEL offered the Nora system. While BAE Archer never made any attempts. which is the known better system in truck mounted artillery.

As the performance wise Ashok Leyland and Nexter made Caesar is front running to seal the deal. Caesar is the known battle proven artillery system operated by French, Saudi and some other nations. It's a 155mm 52 Cal heavy artillery system, used to suppress the enemy firing ranges. Caesar had an automatic reloading system can holds 18 ready to fire rounds. with the firing range of upto 50km using rocket assisted projectiles or some 40 kilometers with normal shells.

The Caesar is light weight, can comes with the either 8x8 or 6x6 wheels, can also easily air lifted by the existing IAF's C 130 air lifters. The entire system, that is Truck and gun weights around some 18 tons only for 6x6 and weights around 30 tons for 8x8. The Caesar is already operationally deployed by many nations include Thailand who claimed two Cambodian BM 21's.

Caesar is one of the finest option for the Army, can be used with existing Ashok Leyland trucks. and in performance wise it's better who operationally deployed hot and cold weather conditions around the world. Can also launch guided projectiles for effective fire power. although all artillery's can fire guided rounds.

The other one who competing the deal is the South African Denel teaming with the TATA. who offering the Denel G6 for the Army's truck mounted artillery program.G 6 also a good competitor in terms of fire power and range. The G 6 is weights around 46 tons, due to it's large size and 6x6 wheel platform. Making hard stance for air transport.

G 6 can capable to strike targets upto 67 kilometers thanks to it's V LAP round. Normally it's effective firing range is upto 40 kilometers same like other system, along with auto re loader and other known modern systems like fire control and target acquisition.

G 6 can fire only 4 rounds per minute, which is low compared to it's competitors. 6-8 rounds is the known good figure for such systems. Since truck mounted artillery can perform shoot and scoot with the delay of 30 to 60 seconds. making hard to find the potion of the artillery using weapon locating radars.

G 6 already deployed by several Arab army's and the South African army. In India that gun placed in the TATA truck who unveiled the model in defense exhibition in last year.

The DPSU also teamed with the Serbians for the Truck mounted artillery project. State firms like OFB and BEML joins with Serbian state firm to produce the Nora B 52 in India. The artillery is already operational under the Bangladeshi ground forces.

Nora is also a comparable systems to other competitors, with better range fire power and integrated network systems. With better firing capability Nora can fire 6-10 rounds per minute. using normal and guided shells for effective fire power. The Nora also works with the Russian standard artillery ammunition's like Krasnopol guided shells.

The entire system weights around some 30 tons, fitted in a 8x8 platform. Nora already operational in Myanmar, Bangladesh and Kenya, Nora is a better system comes in handy price compared to others. In India Nora can be made by OFB and carried by BEML trucks.

BAE Archer is the one who is a better system compared to all the above, developed by the Swedish firm, Archer shares similar characteristic with existing Bofors and Dhanush artillery system. Archer is comes with Volvo truck. In case of Indian orders Volvo India can deliver those trucks. Despite heavy looking the Archer weights below 30 tons. with this weight Archer can be air lifted using A 400 and C 130 J.

Archer can carry 21 ready to fire shells, can be refilled with an minutes. Archer can fire and scoot within 30 seconds. Archer can fire more than 8 rounds per minute, can achieve the fire rate by using  both guided and normal shells. Archer is an best performing Truck mounted artillery. compared to others Archer costs more. Archer is already operational under Swedish, Norwegian and Croatian army's.

IA yet to conduct the field trials, however by looking the performance, as already said Ashok Leyland Caesar is the best one for Indian Army.



Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Taliban attacks heart of Afghanistan, 28 feared dead

Taliban attacks heart of Afghanistan, 28 feared dead


At least 28 people were killed and more than 300 wounded when a suicide bomber blew up a bus full of explosives near a government security building in the heart of Kabul.

After the intial blast, which was described as huge by witnesses, armed men and more suicide bombers stormed the heavily-guarded compound, police said.

Al Jazeera's Qais Azimy, reporting from Kabul, said Tuesday's attack, which was quickly claimed by the Taliban, was likely the biggest such incident to hit the capital since 2001.

With the attack happening during morning rush hour in a crowded are, the number of deaths was likely to rise, according to police.

"Our sources are telling us that at the time of explosion there was a graduation ceremony going on for new recruits when the suicide bomber detonated himself," Azimy said.

The security agency attacked is responsible for protecting government ministers and VIPs.

A police spokesman, Basir Mujahid, told Al Jazeera that the gunfight was ongoing, as Afghan special forces rushed to the scene.

"The Taliban are still fighting with the security forces," Mujahid said.

In a statement, the Presidential Palace condemned the attack "in the strongest possible terms".

"The explosion has caused a lot of damage to the government," Zabihullah Mujahid, a Taliban spokesman, told Al Jazeera.

The US embassy said it was not affected by the blast. The NATO military coalition also said it was unaffected.

The Taliban last week announced the start of their "spring offensive" even as the government in Kabul tried to talk them back to the negotiating table in a bid to end the country's drawn-out conflict.

In a statement, the group warned it would "employ large-scale attacks on enemy positions across the country", dubbing the offensive Operation Omari after the movement's late founder Mullah Omar.

Since then, fighting has raged around the symbolically-important northern city of Kunduz, which fell briefly to the Taliban last September.

The annual spring offensive normally marks the start of what is referred to as fighting season, though this past winter the usual lull was shorter as the group continued to battle government forces, though with less intensity.

Peace talks that began last summer were abruptly stopped after it was revealed that Taliban leader Mullah Omar had been dead for two years, a disclosure which sparked infighting in Taliban ranks.

- Al Jazeera

Russia China deepen maritime ties




Russia China deepen maritime ties


Russia and China deepens their maritime relationship into new level to counter the US and Pacific navy's threats in South China sea, Barents sea and in the Atlantic Ocean. This include assisting the shipbuilding, conducting joint patrols and regular military exercise. The Russian and Chinese both needed to be cooperate to defeat the US and allied navy's to expand the Communist aim of Naval superiority in their respected region.

At first step, Russia will assist the Chinese navy to build much powerful warships and submarines, also assist the Chinese to upgrade the existing warships with advanced weapon systems and sensor systems. Most of the Chinese warships are designed with the support of ex soviet designers who were reallocated into China rather than Ukraine during the collapse of Soviet.

Russia is the first nation who supported the Chinese illegal occupation of Taiwanese and Japanese Islands and it's announcement of air defense identical zones. Both of them also armed North Korea to keep the Pacific nations always under threat, recent footage of 300mm Rocket launchers and S 300 variants displayed in DPRK is achieved with the Russian and Chinese help.

The Russian assistance also gives the Chinese navy to get a lethal fire power, Recent deployment of long range supersonic cruise missile in the Chinese frigates and destroyers is the example. The YJ 18 is considered as long range supersonic anti shipping cruise missiles, deployed in the new generation Type 52 D Destroyer, also currently being fitted out in some older generation Type 52 and Chinese frigates.

The Type 52 D can carry combination of 64 long range cruise missiles and naval S 300 missiles which include YJ 18 cruise missile. With the assistance from Russia, China successfully modified the YJ 12 air launched anti ship cruise missiles in the Su 27 and Su 30 MKK platforms. The YJ 12 is an long range supersonic cruise missile with ranging upto 540 kilometers. 

The Chinese and Russians also planning much bigger level of maritime exercises, Earlier years China and Russia conducted larger ever maritime exercise off the Japanese coast, deterring the Japanese who is the common enemy of both China and Russia, The Exercise validated with the presence of more than twenty three Chinese surface warships and two nuclear submarines along with airborne units and marines, the exact Russian ships numbers are not published.

Both Russia and China planning for such massive maritime exercises to express solditarity with each others. Those exercises validated Chinese air defense systems are performed far better than the Russian counterpart, where Russian ASW tactics lead in the drills. later days same such large scale of exercise conducted near Black sea, during when Russian forces invaded Ukraine in earlier 2014.

Sources also suggested that both Russians and Chinese working together to develop a common operating picture to work together. In the medium of ASW and A2D theater. This further deepens the military relationship. who get  information from each other in real time, Similar like the NATO's Link 16 communication interface.

On the far other side, Russia deployed coastal missile batteries, marine garrisons, and military early warning networks close to Japanese shores, Those deployed forces are placed in a disputed Island which is claimed by both Russia and Japan. The Russian deployment started once Japanese conducted routine patrol in Senaku Islands, which is another disputed Island located near China. which is claimed by both China and Japan.

So far, the Chinese Russian maritime alliance didn't threaten the Indian Navy so far, The day it will be broke, if Russian and Chinese navy conducts drills in Indian Ocean region or sails over Bay of Bengal en route to Chinese occupied coco Islands.



Monday, April 18, 2016

Understanding the nuclear Deterrence




Understanding the nuclear Deterrence


Nuclear weapons are known as the last sword to save the country before falling into enemy's hand, Nuclear weapons are considered as weapons of mass destruction, since they destroy large volume of area, more than that it makes the land inaccessible for humans for more than centuries, due to the radioactive materials continuously emit radio waves which can harm humans.

Nuclear weapons are considered as suicide weapon. also a self defense weapon too, if the enemy nation too posses the nuclear weapon, it could be used for self defense. Both can use the nuclear weapons  in case of anyone launched and vice versa. That's the reason why many nations instructed themselves by not using the nuclear weapons first. No first usage policy is commonly refereed term.

Meanwhile if the enemy nation do not have nuclear weapon, one can easily threaten the enemy with load of dossiers, just like how North Korean dictator Kim Jong repeatedly threatens the non nuclear pacific nations. Unlike in Indo-China-Pakistani theater all posses nuclear weapons. except Pakistan,  India and China had nuclear weapons in safe hand and No first usage policy.

When comes to Pakistan, the rough terrorist regime, who threatens India with tactical nuclear weapons to counter the Indian cold start military movement doctrine. The doctrine simply understand as "March towards Islam-a-bad" . Pakistan reports they can stop the Indian forces using the tactical nuclear weapons if they crossed the border.

Here Pakistan has a less powerful nuclear deterrence compared to India. If Pakistan conduct a nuclear strike against India, with the barrage of some 40 to 60 missiles with nuclear warheads. India may face huge casualty and India can lost many cities.

One has to be understand, those known missile defense systems will not work effectively due to the barrage of multiple launches. Pakistan can use their low yield short range nuclear missiles over India. Pakistan can achieve 20% of successful launches. Since 80% of the missiles can be either intercepted by AD system or launch failure, or missile malfunctions.

In retaliation, India can launch another barrage of some 100 missiles over Pakistan each targets major Pakistani cities with the hit probability of some 80%. with the huge Strike from India, Pakistan can be pushed back to ancient age and can be inaccessible for another some 200 or more years.

The reason why India boosting it's conventional capabilities to fight against Pakistan, In the limited conventional war India can defeat Pakistan. even with low friendly causalities. However Pakistan can use their lands and peoples can live there without any issues even losing to India in a conventional war. the same not available if they planned for a WMD usage.

It's clear, Pakistan can continuously black mail India, while not performing a one, Since all those Pakistani nuclear missiles are always tracked by different nations Intelligence wing as well as Indian intelligence too. They were placed within the strike range of Indian fighter aircraft's. Suppose any conditions Pakistan tries to launch a nuke missile, India can conduct a preemptive air strike targeting those launch pads.

The same can be switched towards Chinese point of view, China has large conventional fire power as well as Nuclear fire power compared to India, India will not pose any serious nuke threats to China, since India knows then the outcome from China may larger than assume in an nuclear war. with the massive number of arsenal, China can take out more than 50 top cities in India, where India can take out some 20 to 25 Top Chinese cities with nuke strikes.

Results can favor to China only, where they can capable to withstand from Indian nuke attack but not us. Moreover China has large significant military fire power, while India too have, both maintain no first usage policy too. So the Indo China war could be in the conventional field only.

 Those Arihant series also as part of nuclear deterrence, If massive first wave of Chinese nuke strike disabled all ground launching and air launching capability. Those Arihants can retaliate the Chinese launch, This is a example of Suicide weapon.  On the other side, If India takes out Pakistani nuclear launching capability in first wave of attack, Pakistan has no option to retaliate. That Pakistan must understand before blackmailing India with nuke threats.



Sunday, April 17, 2016

US looks Andaman for stronger Naval presence




US looks Andaman for stronger Naval presence


The US navy is currently looking for a stronger naval pretense in Indian Ocean with the help of Indian Navy, US looks for the Andaman naval base to carryout operations against Chinese increasing naval activity in Indian ocean as well as Bay of Bengal, where Indian navy short on legs to confront the Chinese violations in Indian waters.

US will support the Indians by providing real time imaginary of Chinese naval ship movements to Indian navy to confront. US may fly the modern MQ 4C BAMS along with the Indian navy P 8I for long endurance surveillance.  

India almost close to sign the military logistics supply agreement with the Americans, which can support each others military operations, also include humanitarian and disaster relief, with the logistics agreements US and India both works together to solve issues related to both nations. The modified LSA agreements specially focus the Chinese aggression near Indian borders.

After breaking the decade old ideology of non alignment, The new government taken better steps to counter the Chinese influence in Indian sub continent, which include revamping all stalled construction near Chinese border. where China forced the Indian government to freeze all construction works close to borders.

This include a bridge construction near Ladakh, more number of ITBP outpost construction, allowing US search and rescue team to search for the mortal remains of B 24 bomber crashed near Arunachal, these all plans are forced to freeze due to the Chinese influence. Even more China irked the Indian navy by sending warships and nuclear submarines inside Indian waters in Andaman. where Indian navy short on legs to confront the Chinese ships.

The new government taken some good steps, revamping all constructions close to border, establishing naval bases and re innovating the abandoned air fields close to the Chinese border, even more teaming with the US to counter Chinese influence.

US navy admirals once expressed about the interest of using Andaman islands to operate the Navy's MQ 4C Triton maritime surveillance drone. The same drone which is offered to Indian navy and still  on consideration. with the use of this base, US Navy can monitor the movement of Chinese ships and submarines in Indian ocean and Bay of Bengal through Malacca strait.

Malacca strait  is the narrow way which can be used by the Chinese to enter Indian waters, When war erupts between China and India, China try to  breach Indian waters through that way. To counter the Chinese navy India almost beefed up the security of Andaman, by deploying modern warships missile boats and patrol ships.

Even during the Exercise Malabar both nations stimulated ASW warfare using submarines and P 8I aircraft in bay of Bengal to Malacca strait, which irked the Chinese way too much. Not only that India finding all measures to counter China, with the south China sea issue in far other side, issues near LAC. All these makes China think twice before doing any misadventures against any nations nearby.

More than twenty of landing strips near to the Chinese borders established by the IAF is NATO standard, which means all NATO military aircraft's can operate from that air strips. Where China tries to pin down Indian air force by engaging with only ground troops. where the territories gives upper edge to the Chinese forces.

US look of Andaman is for only one mission, to work with the Indian navy to stop or confront the Chinese ships sailing repeatedly over Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, where Indian navy short on legs to confront them, Indian Navy alone tried the same, due to lower number of ships and equipment Chinese ships easily bypass Indian warnings.

For temporary base deployment US and India must sign another military contract, what exactly is allowing US forces in India. the contract named EDCA. However India doesn't seems to sign. So US may provide clear picture of Chinese naval activity's near IOR if Indian navy asks.



Saturday, April 16, 2016

Navy's good will visit to Sri Lanka

Navy's good will visit to Sri Lanka 


Indian Naval Ships Tir and Sujata, along with Indian Coast Guard Ship Varuna, comprising the 1st Training Squadron, are scheduled to visit Colombo, Sri Lanka today and shall stay till 19 Apr 16 as part of their Overseas Deployment during Spring Term 16. The Senior Officer of the 1st Training Squadron, Captain SR Ayyar, would be embarked on board INS Tir.

India and Sri Lanka have a close, long-standing relationship covering a wide spectrum of activities and interactions, which have strengthened over the years. The people of India and Sri Lanka have close cultural bonds and a shared vision of a democratic and pluralistic society. 

Visits by IN and SLN ships to each other’s countries as well as bilateral exercises such as SLINEX provide opportunities for extensive operational and training engagements and contribute to the maintenance of good order at sea. The present deployment of the Training Squadron to Colombo would further cement the close relations between the two nations and the two navies.

The First Training Squadron forms part of Southern Naval Command (SNC) and comprises Indian Naval Ships Tir, Shardul, Sujata, ICGS Varuna and two Sail Training Ships Sudarshini and Tarangini, all of which have been built in India. 

The primary aim of the Squadron is to impart sea training to Naval and Coast Guard trainees, with a 24 weeks ab-initio sea training being imparted. All the trainees are trained in Seamanship, Navigation, Ship Handling, Boat Work, Technical aspects, etc. whilst being exposed to the rigours of life at sea, so as to earn their ‘sea legs’.

The Southern Naval Command (SNC) is the Training Command of the Indian Navy, which provides both basic and advanced training to officers and sailors of the Indian Navy. Vice Admiral Girish Luthra, AVSM, VSM is the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Naval Command.

The Indian Navy has also been providing training to personnel from friendly foreign countries for more than four decades, wherein more than 13,000 personnel from over 40 countries have been trained. The Indian Navy’s focused approach for providing high quality training by constantly adapting to evolving tactics and technologies, has gained it a reputation of being one of the finest training destinations.

- PIB

Saab roped in to assist Tejas MK1 A




Saab roped in to assist Tejas MK1 A


Swedish defense firm Saab requested to assist in the LCA program, to resolve the problems in the Tejas and to produce upgraded variant of Tejas called MK 1 A. IAF already orderd 20 Tejas from HAL, which has no real fighting capability nor any guided launching capability. IAF looks for a upgraded Tejas which can capable to perform BVR missile firing along with internal EW suites to fight in modern battlefield.

The IAF has an requirement of more than 300 light aircraft similar like Tejas, However due to the issues in Tejas, IAF ordered 40 units, later decreased into 20 units due to its incapability to fight in modern battlefield. Since the first batch of twenty aircraft's don't have any real fighting capability,  rather than just being used for training purpose.

Tejas don't have BVR firing capability, no proper electronic warfare suites, no air fueling capability and very low combat radius. Due to this backlogs IAF is not ready to use the Tejas, since concerns raised by IAF, ADA and DRDO offered a modified Tejas under MK 1 A program, since Mark 2 program is long way ahead.

Under the MK 1A, Tejas comes with much sophisticated suites like, BVR missile firing capability, Modern Israeli AESA, advanced internal EW suits and much needed aerial refueling capability. IAF and Ministry of Defense set timeline of 2018 to produce those aircraft, and IAF plans to order some 100 MK1 A units.

HAL and DRDO tried to work with the imported missiles, radars and interface systems to modify the Tejas. However they failed to achieve it in scheduled time, and they faced huge cap in technology, So they looking for a foreign partner to help to overcome from the issue.

Saab is the one who is a world leader in aerospace and defense, who tries to push the Gripen to IAF many times, since IAF and ADA fears bringing Gripen can end the Indian development of Tejas. and IAF also rejected Gripen many times.

Now again ADA and DRDO looks into Saab to assist in the Tejas development. by this means Saab will try to modify the entire Tejas air frame to accommodate modern systems and sensors. and help the Israeli missiles and radars to interface with the Tejas computers made by India.

Sources close to Economic times said that, First level of talks with ADA/HAL and Saab has been completed, and another high level expertise committee from Sweden will arrive India next week to carry forward the discussion.



Friday, April 15, 2016

Happy Birthday to Marshal of Indian Air force Arjan Singh

Happy Birthday to Marshal of Indian Air force Arjan Singh


Marshal of the Air Force Arjan Singh DFC will turn Ninety Seven on15 April 2016. The Indian Air Force has planned a grand function at Akash Officers’ Mess, New Delhi on 14 April 16 to celebrate the occasion. A large number of dignitaries will be in attendance which will include the former Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh and the three Service Chiefs among others.

The Marshal has strongly believed in four simple principles throughout his life. Firstly, one should be thorough in his profession; secondly, one should complete the job at hand to the satisfaction of everyone; thirdly, one must have implicit faith in his subordinates; and fourthly, ones efforts should be honest and sincere. He feels that if one adheres to these four principles, one can never go wrong.

The IAF salutes the Marshal of the Air Force Arjan Singh, an iconic figure and wishes him all the best and grateful to him for guiding and inspiring through the years.

The Marshal of the Air Force was the first Indian Air Chief to lead a young Indian Air Force into war. He was Chief of the Air Staff when the IAF saw action in 1965. He was hardly 44 years of age when entrusted with the responsibility of leading the Indian Air Force.

The Marshal was born on 15 April 1919, in Lyalpur (now Faislabad, Pakistan), and completed his education at Montgomery (now Sahiwal, Pakistan). At the age of 19, he was selected to the Empire Pilot training course at RAF Cranwell. His first assignment on being commissioned was to fly Westland Wapiti biplanes in the North-Western Frontier Province as a member of the No.1 RIAF Squadron. After a brief stint with the newly formed No. 2 RIAF Squadron where the Marshal flew against the tribal forces, he later moved back to No.1 Sqn as a Flying Officer to fly the Hawker Hurricane. 

He was promoted to the rank of Squadron Leader in 1944. The Marshal led the Squadron against the Japanese during the Arakan Campaign, flying Close Air Support missions during the crucial Imphal Campaign and later assisting the advance of the Allied Forces to Rangoon. For his role in successfully leading the Squadron in combat, the Marshal was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) in 1944. On 15 August 1947, he achieved the unique honour of leading a fly-past of over a hundred IAF aircraft in Delhi, over the Red Fort.

After his promotion to the rank of Wing Commander, he attended the Royal Staff College at UK. Immediately after Indian independence, he commanded Ambala in the rank of Group Captain. In 1949, he was promoted to the rank of Air Commodore and took over as Air Officer Commanding of an operational command, which later came to be known as Western Air Command. Marshal of the Air Force Arjan Singh, had the distinction of having the longest tenure as the AOC of an Operational base, initially from 1949-1952 and then again from 1957-1961. 

After his promotion to the rank of Air Vice Marshal, he was appointed as the AOC-in-C of an Operational Command. Towards the end of the 1962 war, he was appointed as the Deputy Chief of the Air Staff and he became the Vice Chief of the Air Staff in 1963. He was the overall commander of the joint air training exercise "Shiksha" held between the IAF, RAF and RAAF.

On 01 August 1964, in the rank of Air Marshal, the Marshal of the Air Force Arjan Singh took reins of the IAF, at a time when it was still rebuilding itself and was gearing up to meet new challenges. The Marshal was the first Air Chief to keep his flying currency till his CAS rank. Having flown over 60 different types of aircraft from Pre-WW-II era biplanes to the more contemporary, Gnats & Vampires, he has also flown in transport aircraft like the Super Constellation.

In 1965, when Pakistan launched its Operation Grand Slam, with an armoured thrust targeted at the vital town of Akhnur, the Marshal led the Indian Air Force through the war with courage, determination and professional skill. He inspired the IAF to victory, despite the constraints imposed on the full-scale use of the Air Force combat power. Then Defence Minister YB Chavan wrote about him, “Air Marshal Arjan Singh is a jewel of a person, quiet efficient and firm; unexcitable but a very able leader.”

The Marshal was awarded the Padma Vibhushan for his astute leadership of the Air Force during the war. Subsequently in recognition of the Air Force's contribution during the war, the rank of the CAS was upgraded and Arjan Singh became the first Air Chief Marshal of the Indian Air Force. He remained a flyer to the end of his tenure in the IAF, visiting forward Bases & units and flying with the Squadrons. 

He retired in August 1969, thereupon accepting Ambassadorship to Switzerland. He was Lieutenant Governor of New Delhi from Dec 1989 to Dec 1990. Having been a source of inspiration to all personnel of the Armed Forces through the years, the Government of India conferred the rank of the Marshal of the Air Force upon Arjan Singh in January 2002 making him the first and the only 'Five Star' rank officer with the Indian Air Force.

- PIB