Monday, August 31, 2015

After Mi 35 Pakistan Eying Russian Yak 130 Trainer




After Mi 35 Pakistan Eying Russian Yak 130 Trainer


   The Pakistani Air force asks the Russians to offer the advance Jet Trainer Yak 130 A foreign source Defense world quoted. the Pakistani Air force don't have a Advanced Jet trainer which trains the Pakistani pilots to fly the most advanced 4+ or fifth Generation fighters, before adopting into a 4+ generation Fighters, one should trained in some modern trainer to study about the advanced facilities in the latest generation fighters, Pakistan earlier asked several countries to Supply the Advanced Trainer, however no one agrees to make a contract with Pakistan.

   As shining Relations with Russians, Pakistan slowly pitching the Russians for some advanced weaponry, as successfully signed the first batch of Mi 35 delivery, Russia offers much modern Tor M anti missile system to Pakistan, and Pakistan takes an advantage and ask the Russians to supply Su 35, as earlier reported by the Russian state owned Sputnik News. and now Pakistani's slowly pitching the Russians to supply some Yak 130 Trainers,

   The Yak 130 is the most advanced trainer compared to the Alenia Amerchi M 346, Northrup T 38 Talon and the British BAE Hawk, those advanced Trainer platforms also comes with Light attack capabilities too, compared to others, Yak 130 comes with pre -installed weapon suites, like Air to air and ground munitions, Reconnaissance pods, while other Trainers need some modifications before carrying the Ammunition load,

   Yak 130 comes with a fully digital glass cockpit, allows the Trainer to easily adopt the earlier mechanical compass into new generation digital readings, the Fully integrated Digital Fly by wire system allows the Trainee can control the Trainer very easily with the Trainer, Missile launching and guidance systems like Head up Display and Helmet mounted system allows the pilot to carry out simulated attack missions, which acts like actual combat missions.

   The Pre installed reconnaissance system like American GPS receiver and Russian GLONASS allows the Trainee to navigate and guide the simulated weapon to attack ground target in high precession, also the INS Inertial Navigation system allows the Trainee to fly very close to the designated path, also allows him to guide the Precession guided munitions to attack the ground targets,





    The Yak 130 can carry 3000 kilograms of External payload, which includes Guided and unguided weapons, with the support of Helmet mounted sight, the Yak 130 can fire R 73 IR guided heat seeking missiles, also it can launch precession guided munitions with the help of on board guidance systems like GPS and INS, unguided munitions like Dumb Bombs Rocket launchers also can be armed in the Yak 130, to increase the flight combat radius The Yak 130 can carry two external drop Tanks too.

   Yak 130 comes with two Al 225 Turbofan engines with the total output of some 49kN thrust, which brings the Aircraft at the speed of more than 900 kilometers, But same like others, The Yak 130 also a Subsonic Trainer, the Yak 130 can fly as much as height of some 42,000 feet, a good altitude to intercept unknown passenger Aircraft's.

   So far Pakistan uses some old Chinese model of Turboprop driven Trainers only, which makes some  difficulty to the pilots to touch the new generation fighter aircraft's, in Asia, Bangladesh also operating some Russian Jets include MiG 29 and the Yak 130 trainer,  Bangladesh receiving some Yak 130 from Russia, a contract made in early 2014 to deliver 24, Yak 130 to Bangladesh Air force,

   Yak 130 offered to India as well, In early 2012 the Russians formally announce that they will ready to supply the Yak 130 to Indian Air force, However during that time India taken delivery of BAE Hawk from England, so IAF thinks to order more number of Hawk from England, during that time Yak 130 wasn't completed it's sophisticated trails, that's also a major reason behind the IAF's refusal,

   Also Some western sources Reported the Turkish plans to gift some old American made Talon T 38 advanced trainers to Pakistan, However the gifting process not yet completed, that transfer need US approval, no more information found on the issue,  However It's clear Turkey hasn't yet starts the Gifting of T 38,

   As Pakistan requested this since days, Russians didn't responded about the Pakistani approach, It seems Russia might reject the Pakistani wish.  




Sunday, August 30, 2015

Eye on the Sky: Phalcon Airborne control




Eye on the Sky: Phalcon Airborne control



   Phalcon is the short name of Indian Airborne control and Early warning Plane, after a year long deal, Israel finally dispatched the world's finest AEWCS plane to India, by 2009, where the deal signed early 2004, earlier the US shows resistant towards the most advanced radar sale to India and China, because of most of the Israeli defense companies has large investments from US, at first the Israeli's nearly signed a deal with China, However The US asked the Israeli's not to sale any such modern technologies to other Countries, in early 2000 Israel cancels the Phalcon sale to China,

   India approached the Israeli's by 2003, However America not interested in the deal, the Indian Israeli officials assured about the safeguard of critical technology of the Radar, and US gives authorization to sell the system to India only, and so far India is the only Nation who operates the most advanced powerful AEWCS in the world outside US, even the Israeli's moves into smaller platform with two side looking EL/W-2085 Radar's.

   The IAF Phalcon comes with three side looking EL/W-2090 Radar's which is mounted above the IL 76 platform, the Radar contentiously rotate to scan the Air space for hostile activity, the advantage of the rotating dome has less false rate where each targets being tracked by three radar's in a quick refresh rate. that's the rotating speed, nowadays those Radar's has zero false alarm rate that's why the fixed Radar's on the side of the Planes.

   The A 50 is not only just a Airborne control center, It can perform multiple operations, even it can be assigned with maritime attack role, since rival forces has capability to launch Long range cruise missiles from it's surface ships, however this can be now being tracked by the IAF's advanced P 8 and Tu 142 fitted with Israeli maritime Radars,

   Primary Mission of the Phalcon is the Long Range Air surveillance, It's believed that the Range of Surveillance and multi mode tracking is reported more than 300 kilometers, however it's not the official figure, since the actual range is classified, the Phalcon has three Active Electronic steered array, each module can transmit and receive data at the L Band frequency, the unique L band works on a wavelength of 15-30 cm and a frequency of 1-2 GHz, the actual T/R module numbers not available, however it's estimated it's have more than 6000 T/R modules, the advanced F 22 Raptor has only 1956 T/R modules, the more modules, the more tracking numbers, currently the L Band radar is noted best for detection and tracking airborne systems,

   The Phalcon can act as a Airborne command Control Communication and Intelligence system, easily denoted as C4I, mainly to carryout attack Run in enemy air space and uncontrolled Indian Airspace, when Fighters move from friendly Airspace they have to rely on their own Radar systems, Here Coming with a Phalcon will help the Fighters even in Enemy airspace and guide the fighters to carryout the Attack, the AEWCS transmission between fighters can't be intercepted which is work on a secure high power communication link, usually such missions are needed for control enemy airspace, In the Yemeni Interventions the Saudi E 3 AEWCS gets full control of Yemeni Airspace,





   The Phalcon can also act as a Network centric systems, which can direct and command Naval Air and Ground forces to co ordinate with each other, as likely scenario, if friendly forces operating inside the Phalcon's umbrella but outside Indian territory, if they calls Friendly Air strike or Missile strike to a designated point, the Phalcon can guide the missile or Fighter to strike the enemy position with pin point accuracy,

   In Air warfare, if a Long Range Air to Air missile launched from an fighter Jet, The Phalcon can guide the missile from mid way to attack the enemy Fighter or Cruise missile, the same called by mid course guidance, such guidance can be done from most front line Aircraft's too, However this is a new technology comes with AESA and Phased array radar only, earlier MMR radar has not such technology.

   Phalcon also have the capability to Jam and Intercept enemy communications and data link's, currently most missiles works with data links for precession strike, from Radar or satellites, if Phalcon comes between or identifies the enemy missile with the data link, the missile surely hits the false targets or fell down, and communication could be done by using satellites, the Phalcon can easily intercepts the communication link and decode it and alert the friendly forces, even has the capability to intercept the military Radio sets, the Phalcon has twelve operators which allows each of them can work on different sections like Air surveillance, C4I, mission alert, Support mission etc.

   The Phalcon's primary defensive sensor suites has Radar warning Receiver and Missile approaching receiver both are couple with decoy's like Chaff and Flares, the RWR can alert the Phalcon if it was under any enemy scanner, that makes the Phalcon to move away or fly higher to evade, the MAWS allows the crew about the incoming missile information where the CFD can automatically launch countermeasures at correct distance,

    The Phalcon has the credible IFF features, the Friend or Foe system allows the unidentified fighter either Friendly or Hostile Aircraft, if it was inside communication denied environment, the IFF system in Phalcon has high reliability compared to all other systems,

    So far India operates three Phalcon system, all of them based near Delhi Agra, India earlier planned to add additional two more systems, however the high cost put that order on shelves, as recently a year or ago finance ministry allocates the fund for additional Phalcon AEWCS and it's reported Israel already bought the IL 76 planes from Russia, and it's believed they were in Israel and the modification Programs going on, and if all things go clear IAF might get those new Phalcons by coming 2016 or later, however it's not mentioned what such additional options and Radar can be installed in the new Phalcon AEWCS.    






Saturday, August 29, 2015

US Think Tank estimates Pakistani Nuclear Arsenal




US Think Tank estimates Pakistani Nuclear Arsenal


   The US Based Think Tank Carnegie Endowment  recently researched about the Pakistani advancement in the Nuclear weapons field, and submit their report to the US Congress, the report comes with some evidences of Pakistan's growing nuclear arsenal, include plans of adding more number of low yield Nuclear warheads, the report also suggest Pakistani Plutonium reactors producing twenty warheads per year, while India producing only five, Pakistan has four plutonium based reactors to produce more number of warheads, while India have only one to Produce nuclear warheads,

   The Source of Nuclear materials are available in India very high grade and large quantity, However India invested those resources to produce power and other civil based nuclear research, while Pakistan keep those reactors only for producing warheads, the Think tanks also suggested India choose a good option of using those large quantity of Nuclear materials for civil and Research purposes, at the meantime they produce high Quality high yield of  Nuclear weapons to pose credible nuclear deterrence against both Chinese and Pakistan, they also give an example by US made those Nuclear largely for Civil use and research, which give them good warheads in High yield but less numbers, meanwhile Soviet invested heavily to Build Nuclear weapons, which makes their economy down due to safeguarding those weapons and huge amount of maintenance cost. the same what Pakistan was doing now.

   Pakistan also gets unlimited nuclear materials from China, to run their Nuclear Reactors, where Nuclear supply Groups Refused to supply Nuke materials to Pakistan, meanwhile India receives high grade of Nuclear materials all over from the World, from Canada to Australia, India has a wide open for external sources, While Chinese unlimited nuclear Fuel gives Pakistan no worry about Nuclear Supply Groups,

Meantime The American Think Tanks also pointed some keys to Stop Pakistani advancements in Nukes

  • Shift declaratory policy from “full spectrum” to “strategic” deterrence.
  • Commit to a recessed deterrence posture and limit production of short-range delivery vehicles and tactical nuclear weapons.
  • Lift Pakistan’s veto on Fissile Material Cut of Treaty negotiations and reduce or stop fissile material production.
  • Separate civilian and military nuclear facilities.
  • Sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty without waiting for India.  

    Even if the Pakistani's say the Nuclear weapon program is for Self Defense, however it's threatening India many times,meanwhile India slowly building it's credible Nuclear delivery and pushing it's capability into Nuclear triad, meanwhile Pakistan relies only on it's Variety of Ballistic and Cruise missiles,
   Although Pakistan need to be keep their Nukes for deterrence, Because India invested largely in building conventional Forces, which can almost destroy entire Pakistan or have the capability to capture and control entire Pakistani land, without making any issues in economic and civil structures in India, However Pakistan has no other options expect their Nuke Missiles, those Short Range Tactical Ballistic missiles can save the Pakistani's from Indian Offensive forces, which even makes the Pakistani to nuke his self to Stop Indian Army, However long range cruise missiles like Babur and Shaheen Ballistic missiles has the Capability to strike Indian Cities like Delhi and Mumbai,





    The risk of Pakistani Nuclear missiles in Terrorists hands is also a major problem, Since many number of Terrorists operating inside Pakistan with the Pakistani government support, if the relation between Pakistan government and Terrorists org broken, they effective choose the Pakistani Nuclear weapons to counter the Pakistani Government, forcing International or Indian intervention into the regional Conflict, Pakistani Nuclear missiles in Terrorists hands is not only a threat to India, it's a threat to American interests in Middle East, include Afghan,

    As Three tier of Nuclear Powers, Known by US and Russia comes in First, having capability to deliver barrage of Nuclear attack from it's triad of Nuclear delivery mechanism, currently both of them deployed over 3000 Nuclear Weapons,

   The Second tier comprises of UK, France and China, having nuclear weapons in hundreds, even having capability deliver nukes with the triad delivery, each have an deployed warheads of some 300+ with the delivery options of Missiles, Air and Submarine based,

    The Third Tier consists of Nations like India Pakistan and Israel, countries didn't signed the NPT agreement, although Indian and Israeli Nukes are considered very safe and secure and under control by the Civilian people elected government, here Pakistan is the only country with rough regime same like North Korea and Iran, threatening nations with Nuclear preemptive Strike. also a threat to civilization. those countries contentiously spreading the nuclear technology to other countries to counter American and western Nations,

    An alternate future would result from a decision by Pakistan’s leaders to acknowledge their success in accomplishing strategic deterrence against India and to redirect spending to more pressing concerns; in effect, to de-link Pakistan’s nuclear requirements and capabilities from India’s military programs. We define strategic deterrence as possessing the capabilities necessary to deter worst cases (nuclear exchanges and major conventional warfare) but not lesser threats (such as limited conventional war, proxy wars, sub conventional warfare, sponsored acts of terrorism, and extreme crises) for which the track record of nuclear deterrence is poor, particularly on the subcontinent.42 In this alternate future, Pakistan would retain a powerful nuclear deterrent. Existing capabilities could meet this requirement, and there would be no perceived need to offset qualitative or quantitative improvements in Indian military capabilities. said the Carnegie Researchers,

    The Researchers found, that India spend 2.4% of GDP for it's defense needs, that's equals to some $50 billions, and Pakistan spending 3.4 % of it's GDP worth of some $10 billions, with the High economy of India, even smaller percentage hike would over run entire Pakistani defense spending.

  As finally the Researches suggested that US should try to convince Pakistan to do those following steps,

   A Pakistan that is confident in its success in achieving strategic deterrence would no longer need to adjust to changes in Indian military capabilities. Instead, Pakistan could focus on improving conventional and counter terrorism capabilities, and dedicate greater effort and resources to Pakistan’s domestic and internal security challenges.

   Conversely, if Pakistan’s national security managers lack confidence in nuclear deterrence with an arsenal of more than 100 nuclear weapons, they will lack confidence in deterring India with an arsenal twice or three times this size.

   A Pakistan intent on competing with India — or out competing India, where possible — will never have enough nuclear weapons because India’s nuclear and conventional capabilities will continue to grow.

   Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal offers utility only in deterring worst cases, and if deterrence fails, that utility is lost.





The Entire 48 Page Report available Click here to download.

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Friday, August 28, 2015

Indian Navy MiG 29-K




   The Mighty Mikoyan MiG 29-K taking the                     war to the enemies 



    The Indian navy serves with the motto “May the lord of oceans be auspicious  onto us“ have grown from a regional navy to a brow water navy. The Indian navy currently operates one of the biggest and a very robust and an under modernizing force. Indian navy currently operates more than hundred vessels which have been guarding the nation against any sea borne threats from decades. The flag ship of the force is ‘INS Viraat’, a centaur class aircraft carrier.

   Indian navy has the distinctive mark of being the only navy other than the US Navy to operate an operational two carrier group. Indian navy has to a vast experience in operating these floating airstrips which can take battle’s right to the door steps of the enemies. These massive vessels can launch aircraft from the middle of the ocean assisted by modern technologies thus giving a major boost to the operational range and also making long range attacks possible. The aircraft carriers play a major role in power projection. Indian navy currently operates two active CBG’s (Carrier Battle Group), INS Viraat and INS Vikramaditya

   With India choosing to acquire INS Vikramaditya with an STOBAR design, Russia put forward the MiG-29K and Sukhoi 33 as the primary aviation wing. India choose the MiG-29K considering the larger wingspan of SU-33. Developed by the Mikoyan, MiG-29K is a 4++ generation, all weather carrier based multi-role aircraft. A carrier based aircraft demanding a more reinforced under carrier and tail section, Mikoyan came up with the MiG29K which was developed specially for naval operations. The MiG 29K was equipped with a more powerful and efficient engine, the cockpit and the armament received significant changes.





   MiG29K took to skies on 23 July 1988, piloted by Aubakirov and by landing on Admiral Kuznetsov it achieved its first carrier landing on 1 November 1989. An aircraft capable of handling AEW was also developed based on the MiG29K and was called the MiG-29KUB. This jet features two air crew and was equipped with powerful radar and secured data-links. Flying in formation and connecting over the secured links these turbofan jet engines developed by the Klimov for powering light weight fighter jets. The engine can develop a maximum thrust of around 50N when run in dry mode and can produce a maximum output of around 80N when the afterburners are engaged.

   The engines are very efficient and can produce 7% more thrust than the engines powering the MiG29’s, the engine is controlled by an FADEC or Full Authority Digital Engine control. The FADEC is an electronic computer that basically consists of Electronic Engine controller (EEC), and will monitor the engine performance throughout the flight. If the engines performance is found to be non-satisfactory the system will immediately restore the engine controls to a preset mode.

Source - MoD

   A four channel fly-by-wire system controls the aircraft, one of the most advanced avionics package went aboard the aircraft. The aircraft is equipped with a passive anti-missile homing system, it is also provided with the Sigma-95 GPS receivers which efficiently guide the pilot to his designated targets. The targeting system of the aircraft received a major boost with the helmet-mounted targeting system being introduced. To counter interference with the systems by the enemies, the aircraft is equipped with state-of-the art ECM systems.

   The primary radar of the aircraft is the NIIR Phazotron developed, Zhuk-AE radars. These radars feature an active electronically scanned array. The radar features a 700mm antenna and 1016 T/R (Transmit/Receive) modules. The radar has an approximate detection range of 200 km, and can track about 60 targets at a time and can engage six targets simultaneously. The jet can also be equipped with infra-red search and track (IRST) system. This system helps in detecting and tracking objects by following the infrared radiation emitted from the objects.

   MiG 29K is equipped with an array of weapon systems, being a multi-role aircraft the jet can carry a mix of air-air missiles and air-ground missiles. The very basic weapon system of the MiG 29K is the GSh-30-1 30mm cannon, mounted in the port wing root. Weighing just about 40 kg the gun can be easily mounted on the the uniqueness of the weapon system is its short recoil action. Firing up to 1800 rounds per minute the gun annihilate any hostile targets. The maximum effective range of the gun is around 800 m against aerial targets and varies between 1200-1800 m against ground targets.

   Equipped with laser range finding and targeting system, the rounds can be fired with pinpoint accuracy. The aircraft can carry laser-guided and electro-optical bombs for conducting air-ground attack missions. The jet can also be equipped with Kh-31P passive radar seeker missiles which can be used as anti-radiation missiles. The aircraft can also carry Kh-35 and Kh-31A anti-shipping missiles, causing havoc over enemy ships. It is crucial the jet also can engage aerial targets, the jet is equipped with air to air missiles. Various foreign developed missiles can also be integrated with the aircraft.

   India has signed a $1.2 billion deal, with the Mikoyan for acquiring 40 MiG 29K, INS Vikramaditya will carry up to 24 fighters. INS Vikrant is expected to carry up to 30 fighters which will be a mix of the MiG 29K and the LCA naval version.With the Indian navy opting for the more powerful and efficient CATOBAR configuration the aviation wing of the navy is set for a major revamp. The first of the navy's CATOBAR carrier will be INS Vishal/IAC-II which is currently in the design phase and will be constructed by CSL, Cochin. The carrier will have complement of around 45 aircraft, the carrier for the first time will allow the operation of AWACS aircraft from its deck. The Rafale M,F-18 Super hornet and the fifth generation stealth enabled F-35 C will be the leading contenders for securing the tender to supply the carriers aviation wing






Article - Karthik Kakoor

Thursday, August 27, 2015

4 Ton GSAT Ready for Lift off from GSLV




4 Ton GSAT Ready for Lift off from GSLV



   A government-owned communications satellite heading for geostationary orbit 22,300 miles above Earth is set for launch Thursday to on a nine-year mission to to support the Indian military.

   The 4,667-pound GSAT 6 spacecraft will lift off aboard India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle at 1122 GMT (7:22 a.m. EDT) Thursday from the Satish Dhawan Space Center, a spaceport situated about 50 miles north of Chennai on India’s east coast.

   Shrouded inside the GSLV’s metallic nose fairing, the satellite is India’s 25th geostationary communications satellite and has a mission to serve “strategic users,” according to the Indian Space Research Organization. Indian news reports said the prime customer for the new signal relay craft is the Indian military.

   ISRO officials said the 29-hour countdown began Wednesday, and launch crews planned to fill the rocket’s four liquid-fueled boosters and second stage with storable hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants later in the day. Fueling of the GSLV’s third stage with cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen will come in the final hours of the countdown.

The first stage’s solid propellant load was packed inside the motor when it was assembled.

   Launch is scheduled for 4:52 p.m. local time Thursday at the Indian launch base, and 161-foot-tall GSLV will fire away on the power of four hydrazine-burning strap-on Vikas booster engines and a solid-fueled core motor. At peak power, the first stage and the boosters will generate more than 1.7 million pounds of thrust.

   The four liquid-fueled boosters will ignite at T-minus 4.8 seconds and ramp up to full thrust before the solid first stage fires when the countdown clock reaches zero.

   The core motor will consume its propellant load by T+plus 1 minute, 46 seconds, followed by shutdown of the four Vikas booster engines at T+plus 2 minutes, 29 seconds. A single second stage Vikas powerplant will take over and burn until just shy of the mission’s five-minute point, during which time the GSLV’s payload fairing will release once the rocket is out of the dense lower atmosphere — a milestone projected at T+plus 3 minutes, 50 seconds.

   A cryogenic upper stage engine will ignite at T+plus 4 minutes, 54 seconds, for a nearly 12-minute firing to propel the GSAT 6 satellite into an oval-shaped geostationary transfer orbit. Spacecraft separation is schedule for T+plus 17 minutes, 4 seconds, according to ISRO.

   The launch is targeting an orbit with a high point of 22,353 miles (35,975 kilometers), a low point of 105 miles (170 kilometers) and an inclination of 19.95 degrees.

   Thursday’s launch marks the third time the Indian-built cryogenic engine, which burns a super-cold mixture of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, has flown on the GSLV. Earlier GSLV flights, dating back to the rocket’s maiden mission in 2001, employed a Russian-made cryogenic third stage.

   The all-Indian version of the GSLV, called the GSLV Mk.2, failed on its first launch in April 2010 due to a failure in the upper stage engine’s liquid hydrogen turbopump. The second test launch of the GSLV Mk.2 in January 2014 was successful.

   The launch of GSAT 6 is the ninth flight of the GSLV in both its all-Indian and part-Russian configurations. ISRO considers four of the eight launches to date as successful.





   Thursday’s launch, designated GSLV-D6 by ISRO, is India’s third space mission of the year after two flawless flights of the smaller Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

   GSAT 6 will fire its on-board propulsion system to circularize its orbit 22,300 miles above the equator, where it will park itself at 83 degrees east longitude and unfurl a nearly 20-foot (6-meter) S-band antenna, the largest reflector of its kind ever flown on an Indian communications satellite.

  The spacecraft carries S-band and C-band communications payloads with five spot beams and one nationwide beam.

Article first Published in Space Flight Now 

The legend Baba Harbhajan: Ghost Soldier on Duty in Indian Army




The legend Baba Harbhajan: Ghost Soldier on Duty in Indian Army



   You must have seen many young people serve their country . But you will be totally shocked to know that somebody’s soul is still serving his nation and this can happen only in India. Yes, in Indian Army the soul of “Baba” Harbhajan Singh who died in 1968, still does his duty on Nathula Pass in eastern Sikkim, India. The story goes like this,

   Late Sepoy Harbhajan Singh was registered into the Punjab Regiment, Indian army in 1966. Baba Harbhajan Singh was born in a Sikh family on August 3, 1941 in the village of Browndal in Kapurthala district of Punjab. He was posted on the smoggy heights of the Sino- Indian border near Nathula Pass.

   The year 1968 saw heavy rainfall and floods in the region. On 4 October, 1968, while escorting a mule caravan from his battalion headquarters at Tukla to Deng Chukla, he felt into a fast- flowing stream and was washed away. The search for his body continued for a couple of days but due to inclement weather, it was abandoned. Everyone had lost the hope, then it was Harbhajan Singh himself who helped the search party to find his body, by coming in the dreams of his mates. His body was recovered after three days and was cremated with full military honours.

   It is said that many of them have seen him patrolling the area. Soldiers deployed in the area started to talk of a lone uniformed man on horse patrolling the region. Forces on the other side of the border confirmed these reports and claimed that they too had seen the ghost rider. Over the many years, soldiers in the area began seeing Harbhajan Singh in their dreams and instructed them of loopholes, unprotected areas from where the Chinese could attack. His instructions generally proved accurate and the legend of Baba Harbhajan Singh grew.





  And later, he had appeared in his friend’s dream and asked him to build and maintain a shrine for him at the place where he was cremated. Army myth holds Baba is a stickler for discipline.

   In the camp at Nathula Pass, a bed is kept for him and his boots are polished and uniform is kept ready every day. The sheets are reportedly crumpled every morning and boots muddy. The Ghost soldier continues to draw a salary and takes his annual leave also. Legend also shares that in the event of a war between India and China, Baba would warn the Indian soldiers three days in advance.

    Chinese also worship him & during the flag meetings between the two nations at Nathula Post, the Chinese Soldiers, in fact, set a chair aside for the saint. Soldier Baba Harbhajan Singh is today honoured with the rank of Honorary Captain. Ghost Soldier gets two months annual leave every year. 

   Every year on September 14, a jeep departs with his personal belongings to the nearest railway station, New Jalpaiguri. A First Class berth is booked in the train in his name and his portrait, uniform and other belongings are brought by army officials to his native village Kuka in Kapurthala district to avail of his leave.

   As a tribute, small sum is also sent to the mother of this Ghost Soldier each month. Ghost Soldier’s name still continues in the army’s payrolls, his mother has still been getting his salary cheques and he has also been given all due time bound promotions. Though it may look weird but it’s true & Indian Army still pays homage to this soldier.

    Taxi drivers and soldiers passing through the area generally stop at the Samadhi to pay obeisance to the revered Baba. Not doing so is supposed to bring bad luck.

    This year also under an annual drill, belongings of “Baba” Harbhajan Singh were brought to Jalandhar from New Jalpaigudi by Dibrugarh Express on Thursday night. A JCO and a Subedar orderly accompanied the belongings. The family of the late soldier received the belongings at the railway station and later proceeded for their native village. On completion of the leave the same team of the army personnel will escort back the belongings to the Nathula region.





Written By Aastha bapna

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

India-Australia drills targeting submarines seen rattling China




India-Australia drills targeting submarines seen rattling China




   India and Australia will focus on anti-submarine warfare in their first ever joint naval exercises, signaling a growing strategic relationship to counter China's increased activity in the Indian Ocean.

   The war games starting Sept. 11 off India's Visakhapatnam port in the Bay of Bengal will include exercises to protect a tanker from a hostile attack submarine. The area is near waters where China deployed a nuclear-powered submarine for the first time last year, as well as the Sri Lankan port where another unit surfaced twice. That caused a diplomatic uproar.

   There's the "potential for increased security tensions in the Indian Ocean," said Captain Sheldon Williams, defense adviser at the Australian High Commission in New Delhi. "We sit right in the confluence of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. We have a significant responsibility for its security. That's how we're looking at it now."

   The drills -- first discussed a decade ago -- come as global powers vie for greater influence. The Indian Ocean's sea lanes account for nearly half of the world's container trade, including 80 percent of China's oil imports.

   "We're seeing a genuine power play in the Indian Ocean," said Rory Medcalf, head of the National Security College at the Australian National University in Canberra. "Indian security cooperation with the U.S. and its allies is increasing, which rattles the Chinese."

   Australia is dispatching Lockheed Martin's P-3 anti- submarine reconnaissance aircraft, a Collins submarine, tanker and frigates, Williams said. Among assets India will deploy are Boeing's P-8 long-range anti-submarine aircraft and a locally manufactured Corvette, said navy spokesman Captain DK Sharma.

   A month later in the same waters, India and the United States will conduct drills that U.S. Ambassador Richard Verma described as the most complex yet between the two nations. Japan has been invited to join.

   China made strides into a region India considers its traditional sphere of influence, building ports in Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and an oil pipeline to Myanmar's coast. President Xi Jinping has also lobbied the Maldives, Seychelles and Sri Lanka to join a maritime version of his Silk Road trade rejuvenation project.

   Most alarming for India, though, has been China's deployment of submarines near its shores. A  nuclear-powered submarine patrolled the Gulf of Aden on a two-month anti-piracy mission last year, according to Indian media reports citing an advisory from China's Foreign Ministry to India's embassy in Beijing.

   A Chinese submarine also popped up in Sri Lanka's Colombo port for "replenishment purposes" in September and November. India says another Chinese submarine docked in May and July in Pakistan.

   Those moves are prodding Prime Minister Narendra Modi to align India more closely with the U.S. and a "rules-based" approach for maritime security. That order's threatened by China's attempts to assert territorial claims in the South China Sea with the construction of artificial islands and runways.





   While Australia doesn't take sides in the South China Sea dispute, it's concerned about China's land-reclamation activities, Williams said. "Certainly, the tension that that causes is not good for anyone, particularly the potential militarization of those areas," he said.

   China doesn't appear to be backing off. Beijing's leaders want to complete a free-trade deal with Sri Lanka by year's end and announced more than $350 million in aid money last month.

  "India alone cannot assure the security of the Indian Ocean, even if it regards the Indian Ocean as its backyard," the China Daily said in an editorial. "If the Pacific Ocean is big enough to accommodate China and the U.S., so is the Indian Ocean to accommodate India and China."

Article Published in  Chicago Tribune

Hawk-eye of the battlefield - Battle Field Management System




Battle Field Management System (BMS) providing commanders with real time battlefield information


Source - Net 
    The situation on a battlefield is fluid and keeps changing rapidly. More the awareness of the happening of the battlefield, better decisions can be made and better counter-measures be deployed and thus a promising victory. But in a fluid environment, the situation keeps varying and the only way any situational awareness can be attained is by maintaining eyes and ears in the battlefield. Can this mission be left to the human beings? Can the mission be carried out by increasing the reconnaissance missions? Or is there any technology, which not only works on the battlefield but also keeps tab of the activities? The answer is simply implementing a management system that can manage the battle field activities named the BMS.


    Battlefield management system (BMS) is a state-of-the-art system which promises the helps in rapid acquisition and processing of information relating to the battlefield. This process of rapid acquisition and processing of information helps to greatly enhance the command and control cycle of a military unit. Charged with the BMS, a military unit can have a complete situational awareness of the battlefield. The BMS displays all crucial data required by a Field Commander at any given point of time, hence enhancing the decision making capability of the unit. In the chaos of battle, the ability to manage and control events at combat levels, as they unravel on the battlefield is the key to the success of an operation. BMS thus helps in maintaining a situational analysis and decision-making pertaining to the battlefield.

Source - Tarmak 007
 
  BMS is a highly versatile, flexible, multilevel and fully inter-operable tactical command and control information system providing ground forces from the level of a Commander down to the individual soldier – with integrated situation awareness, a common communication infrastructure, collaborative planning tools and knowledge-based command and control capabilities.

       The need for a BMS in the Indian Army has been echoing for years and was felt clearly after the Kargil operation. Indian army has been actively studying the BMS implemented across the globe. Indian army has the ambition of implementing a reliable BMS with around INR 50000 Crore/ $ 8 billion. Indian Army has already floated an International tender for equipping the army with a BMS under the ToT or Make in India campaign. The competition for the tender has been intense and various companies have formed working groups with Indian giants to equip the army, with the latest BMS system.


Source - Net
Source - Net
    Rolta in collaboration with Bharat Electronics (BEL) has been actively pitching for their latest BMS system for the project. Tata Power SED and L&T Defence have also formed reliable working partnership to field their system. Both these working partners will now develop a BMS individually and will then field the same for field tests. The selected BMS will be rapidly inducted and the selected company will be reimbursed with 80% of the development cost. The first Prototype of the BMS would available with the army by 2017 for field testing which would last for around a year.

    BEL has been selected as a ‘developmental agency’ and is charged with the development of every aspect relating to the project. BEL has also established a testing hotbed for BMS, which enables continuous evaluation and implementation of user requirements. BEL has been a key partner of DRDO in the development of several Tactical Command, Control and Communications & Intelligence (Tac C3I) systems being used by the Indian Army. Having worked as the developer and integrator of several Tac C3I systems, BEL have a unmatched knowledge regarding the Indian army needs.

       With newer and newer technology reaching the battle-filed, it remains evolving every second and with the advent of more lethal weaponry the battlefield has been turned out to be extremely chaotic. But technology like BMS has now made it possible for battlefield commanders to see their areas of responsibility in depth and in real time, and has also helped to develop an accurate common picture of the battle space. This can further be shared right to the bottom of the command with a click of the button. This has been made possible only by enabling rapid acquisition, processing and transfer of information, enhancing situational awareness and acquiring capability to react to information. 

    The Management of the information available on the battlefield is crucial and decides the course of the war. The information management is war course decider and the implementation of these decision needs to e precise. The BMS is a third generation warfare system. This third generation system effectively digitizes the battlefield. The sensors and weapons which are used in current warfare are now using extensive digital technology. The sensors, weapons and units which help in enabling the digital technology collectively help in integrating and bolstering the usages of Battle Management Systems (BMS).





   The BMS can effectively provide an integrated ‘Common Operating Picture’ which can be used by the all armed forces to plan evasive plans collaboratively. This helps in exercising highly effective control over operations in a dynamic and ever changing battlefield. The main principal of the BMS is based on Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA). This process involves quickly, observing and reacting to unfolding events more rapidly than an opponent, can thereby "get inside" the opponent's decision cycle and gain the advantage.

      Most advanced countries have a very well implemented situation awareness packages but what is crucial is integrating these packages and digitizing them. In an implemented BMS it is crucial for the system to cover the whole military command from the highest order to a even foot soldier. The BMS sought by the Indian Army is expected to perform a variety of operational situational awareness tasks and should also be of decision making support end to a battalion. The Commanding Officer will have a very high amount of situational awareness and through this can command his unit to a very effective position against the enemy with the help of a secure communication link.

Source - Net

   The BMS system being sought by the army is a mobile tactical command and control platform which are integrated with sensors, various weapon platforms and decision making command units. This effectively reduces the time taken for making these decisions with the help of real time analysis of the battle field. BMS will comprise of wearable or hand-held information relay systems which are mounted or controlled on a individual soldier, this information is further relayed to a central command through a secure communication link.

  BMS also compromises of vehicle mounted information systems which are relay the information back to the Central command. This information relayed back is quickly analysed and with the advance systems is placed in real time situations and crucial decisions. The decision made now is verified with various other commands charged with the crucial surveillance task. These commands are responsible for noting the location position of the enemy and the friendly forces. Once the positions of these forces are made available and the battle field scenario is drawn up the information is soon analysed and is forwarded to the strike units which have the crucial weapons systems. These weapon platforms are integrated part of the BMS. With a higher level of combat information available these forces can retaliate/Strike forward enemy positions inflicting huge drawbacks on the hostile forces and paving the way for forward movement of ‘friendly forces’.

   The BMS is one of the crucial projects for the army and can turn out to be a major factor deciding the outcome of a operation. BMS is also one of the projects selected by the government for ‘Make in India’ platform. BMS was cleared from the DAC (Defence Acquisitions Council) tables in July, 2013. The EoI (Expression of Interest) for the project was issued by November, 2013. Around 15 companies received the EoI for the project which involved the Larsen & Turbo, BEL , Rolta , Tata Powers and various other companies. The companies were given four months to form consortium, forward the proposals and a detailed plan to be submitted to the MoD by July 2014.

   The foreign consortium involved of Israel Aerospace Industries, Rafael and Elbit from Israel, Thales of France, BAE systems from UK and General Dynamics of US. The MoD would be funding around 80 % of the project cost and the remaining 20 % to be funded by the foreign companies. Two consortiums would be selected and their BMS would be put to test on battle fields and the best one would be finally cleared by the MoD to be implemented on the Battlefield. The implementation of BMS has a long way to progress with at least 3 years required to test the systems at various and finally to be implemented at a battle field level. BMS is a force multiplier that gives a combat edge to a military force, enabling faster and accurate decisions to be made which may totally change the course of an operation. With the location of every single tank, artillery, soldier known the command can easily make course changing decisions. If the system is put in place the command will have a hawk eye over the battlefield enhancing the capabilities of the command to manage ground forces of the third largest army in the world.





  • BMS is centric around a wireless network plan. This wireless network is in-charge of linking all machinery used on the battle-field. 
  • Various machinery, communication systems, information relay systems and recon devices used  by soldiers on the battlefield is linked to the unit commanders, kilometers away.  
  • With each of the device integrated and relying information, a common battle-field picture can be formed thus helping in decision making. 
  • The same decision made in the level of a general or the unit's commander can be relied right down to the last position on the battlefield. 
  • Currently there are two working partners which have been instructed to pitch up “special purpose companies” for the project. 
  • The first consortium is between BEL and Rolta. The second is between Tata Power SED and Larsen & Toubro. 
  • Ministry has also cleared these consortium's of the four, to develop BMS for the army.  
  • The companies are expected to individually develop two separate BMS system and field them for rapid field tests with the army.
  • After selecting the best,  MoD will reimburse the selected company 80 per cent of the development cost spend on the project. 
  • Even though a single product is reimbursed, both consortium are expected to mass-produce their completed and cleared prototype.  

Article - Karthik Kakoor

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Israeli Navy Chief holds talks with top defence officials




Israeli Navy Chief holds talks with top defence officials




  Israeli Navy chief vice admiral Ram Rutberg on Monday held talks with top Indian defence officials here as the two countries look at deepening the bilateral defence ties.

  Rutberg met his Indian counterpart admiral RK Dhowan at his south block office here and later called on defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and defence secretary G Mohan Kumar.

   The visit comes at a time when the long-range surface-to- air missile Barak 8 is undergoing trials in Israel. The project is being carried out by India and Israel jointly.

   "We are looking forward to the trials to be completed successfully so that the missile is available for both Indian and Israeli navies," Dhowan told reporters here this morning.

Rutberg said, "The road map ahead is joint collaboration in developing defence technology.

   "Together we can achieve much more than doing it alone. This is the aim...to work together. This is the best way and this is the only way we know," he said.

   Israel has been a key defence partner for India. From radars to missiles, India has been depending on Israel as it undertakes a modernisation drive of the armed forces.

   Asked how Israel sees a possible visit by Prime Minister Narendra Modi later this year, Rutberg said, "Any Indian visiting Israel is Prime Minister. We welcome him, salute him and we appreciate him."





On his part, Dhowan said that a visit by Modi will make the links between the two navies stronger.

   In a bid to bolster defence ties between the two countries, frontline warship of Indian Navy -- INS Trikand -- made a port call on August 19 at Haifa in Israel.

The previous port call at Haifa by an Indian Navy warship was in 2012.

  To a question on the 'One Rank One Pension' issue, Dhowan said it is "being examined with all seriousness and on priority by the government".


First Published in Times of India

L&T gears up to indigenously build the massive Juan Carlos LHD vessel




Indian giant Larsen & Turbo teams up with Navantia to offer the massive 26000 tonne Juan Carlos LHD vessel 




The Multi Role Support Vessel is a warship that was sought by the Indian Navy to perform multiple roles from a single platform. Indian Navy aimed to perform humanitarian and disaster relief operations, evacuation missions, aviation operations using the rotary wing aircraft attached to these vessels. The vessels were also required to perform amphibious assault operations and force projection. Indian Navy was also charged to protect the water and islands around the strategic Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The Navy along with the Coast Guards was charged the overall responsibility of the Lakshwadeep Islands.  The Andaman and Nicobar Islands form an archipelago in the crucial Bay of Bengal waters. Andaman and Nicobar Islands were captivated by the Japanese during the World War II.

Repeated reporting of suspicious activities in and around these Islands has been a major problem the Navy has been unable to solve. Constant threat to these Islands from a sea borne hostile force is something India can’t role down. To curb the presence of Chinese vessels and influence in and around these strategic islands the Andaman and Nicobar Command was carved out. Performing amphibious operations on these Islands is something Indian forces have to be always committed to be and with various vessels being placed under the ANC it has turned out to be a major Amphibious Warfare Hub. Amphibious operations have been part of the warfare for quite a long time. The primary method in amphibious operations is to deliver troops to shore. The forces are delivered to the shore through mechanized landing crafts and the forces are usually given air support through the Rotary and fixed crafts attached to the vessels.

Navantia is a Spanish state owned shipbuilding company which has been a pioneer in designing and building military and civil ships.Navantia has experience in building technologically advanced ships like frigates, amphibious ships, patrol vessels, and submarines. Navantia is part of the consortium's involved in building the Scorpene submarines in India. Larsen & Turbo or the L&T has been a leading service provider for the Indian armed forces. L&T has designed several key components over the years for India’s robust naval platforms. L&T has been part of several key projects powering India’s dreams of being a super power. L&T has a shipyard capable of constructing vessels of up to displacement of 20,000 tons at its heavy engineering complex at Hazira. The shipyard  for long has been part of several key naval projects. L&T and Navantia formed collaboration and the vessels would be built and integrated in the L&T complex at Hazira. Navantia and L&T have decided to field the Juan Carlos for the program.


    Juan Carlos is a multipurpose assault ship. The ship can be effectively used for amphibious operations and humanitarian missions. The ship is equipped with a Ski-jump which allows STOVL operations.  This unique feature of the ship has earned laurels for the designers. With the ski jump the ship can also be used as an air carrier and can project the power of the operating nations across its region. The Juan Carlos is currently being operated under the Spanish Navy which has fielded AV-8B Harrier II attack aircraft. Juan Carlos has a vast flight deck of 663 ft. The flight is equipped with eight landing spots which can handle operations of up to eight rotary aircraft simultaneously. The ship can carry up to 30 helicopters or 12 Harrier jets. The ship is believed have designed to accommodate the more advanced and the new F-35 lightning which can be used under a STOVL configuration. The Ship can accommodate up to 12 F-35s. The ship has a displacement of about 26000 tonnes and can travel at speeds up to 21 Knots under full load.





    The ship has operation range of about 17000 kms after a single replenishment. The ship’s well deck is huge and can accommodate up to four mechanized landing crafts that can land the troops on shores with ease. The Spanish navy currently operates the LCM-1E as the min mechanized landing crafts off the Juan Carlos. These crafts are powered by MAN D-2842 LE 402X diesel engines which churns out around 1085 hp. The craft can reach a top speed of 25 kms/hr when loaded with troops. Equipped with radar navigation, GPS, gyro needle/magnetic compasses these crafts can operate as far as up to 37 kms from the mother ship. The communications is taken care of by the VHF and UHF communications system. Currently these crafts serve the Spanish, Australian and Turkish forces. The ship has a sprawling 65,000ft of hangar area which can accommodate up to 12 aircraft. The ship is also provided with two heavy deck lifts.



    Juan Carlos can accommodate a compliment of up to 900 soldiers and can also make space for up to 50 Leopard 2E tanks main battle tank thanks to its well designed stern well deck which measures a staggering 227 by 55 ft. The main living quarters of Juan Carlos can provide quarters for up to 400 people. The main search radar of the Juan Carlos is the Indra Lanza-N 3D search radar. The radar has azimuth of 360 degrees and has a maximum range of 470 kms and can detect incoming targets within the range of 3-10000 feet. The planar array antenna consist of precision cut horizontal linear elements vertically stacked, each with its own receiver. Ultra low side lobes are achieved by precise control of the phase and amplitude of the signal fed to each element. The array is driven by distributed solid-state transmitter modules which are phase controlled. The shapes and the positions of the narrow pencil beam are controlled in range and elevation Target height is obtained using mono-pulse techniques, with enhanced measurement at low elevation angles by means of special pencil beam combination techniques. 

    Using advanced digital pulse compression techniques, the processor provides extremely accurate range and height information while automatically adapting to the prevailing environmental conditions. For advanced surface search capabilities the ship is equipped with the ARIES–LOW PROBABILITY OF INTERCEPT (LPI) RADAR. The ARIES family is a complete Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) and High Resolution Radar (HRR) solution. The ARIES family is suitable for the detection and acquisition of low Radar Cross Section (RCS) surface targets in severe sea clutter environments. This radar maintains a 360-degree search for all targets within line-of-sight distance from the radar, determining the ranges and bearing of the detected targets. For smoothened air operations of the flight deck the ship is also equipped with Precision approach radar developed by Indra. Precision approach radar (PAR) is a radar guidance system which can provide lateral and vertical guidance to a pilot approaching for landing.

    Juan Carlos comes with state of the art REGULUS electronic warfare systems. The RIGEL systems take care of the decoys systems. The ship is also armed with a defensive system. The defensive system is taken care by 4 20mm guns and a heavier 12.77 mm machine gun takes charge of the longer range threats. The ship is powered by a diesel-electric propulsion unit. The first of the ship under this class the Juan Carlos was started in May 2005; the ship was launched on 10th March 2008 and was inducted to the Spanish forces on 30th September 2010. The total spending for the ship was estimated at around US$600 million

    Australia purchased two ships of the class which were designated as the Canberra-class LHD. Navantia was to complete the ship in Spain from keel to flight deck and then to be transferred to Australia for further development of system by BAE systems. The first o the ship under this class was named HMAS Canberra and was commissioned to the forces in November 2014. The second ship HMAS Adelaide is under construction and is expected to be delivered to the force by 2016. Turkey has opted for the Juan Carlos and is expected to be furnished under a ToT and the contract is signed for an expected $500 millions. 

    India has for long has had ideas of operating three main CBG’s and be backed by two small carriers that can effectively fulfill India’s need for monitoring the EEZ without opting for the main CBG’s whose operations may cost in crores. The ship also promises an longer period of endurance in the high seas and can be used for operations across the Indian Ocean Region(IOR). Navantia has been part of India’s Nava technology for quite some time and with tie ups to L&T the position of Navantia has only been compounded. But Juan Carlos currently has an Diesel-Electric propulsion system against India’s need for an all exclusive Electric propulsion system. The maximum speed attained by Juan Carlos is only 21 Nautical miles which crosses India’s requirements by a very small margin. The podded thrusters have again been used in the design. But if Navantia and L&T comes up with an newer design Juan Carlos can surely be one of the ships Indian Navy would like to operate.





Article-Karthik Kakoor

Monday, August 24, 2015

Rafale deal Countdown T-8 Days




Rafale deal Countdown T-8 Days



    Days ago, England based Reuters published a Article, citing some french sources said, India and France ink the Rafale fighter jet deal in ten days, as from years months and soon dates, it's now the new deadline is set as next 10 days, as already two days over. The Rafale deal is not as much as difficult, However IAF insists the Ministry to buy large number of Fighters include local productions, IAF plans to use the Rafale as a test platform too, with the easy modifications in Rafale IAF can test new missiles and Bombs using the Rafale from various altitude, to modify the Rafale IAF needs the Intellectual property rights, thus can be done only by the Transfer of Technology or the Make in India kind of Contract,

   The same sources could not revealed what kind of deal it is, as PM modi announced in Paris, that India buy only 36 Rafale as fly away mode or a Government to government deal, The IAF out of words, Since the Indian Nuclear command named Strategic forces Command also insists the IAF to transfers one squadron of Rafale to use Nuclear attack missions, so far it's believed the SFC have One Jaguar and Su 30 MKI squadron for Nuke delivery, while they plans to replace the Jaguars with Rafale Fighters, without IP rights  SFC could not use the Nuclear Bomb/Missiles in Rafale, also IAF wants the Astra should be used in the Rafale, since it's was in development and integration stages on Tejas and Su 30 MKI,

    Rafale comes with two BVR Missiles one is long range MICA EM and other is  Ultra long Range Meteor BVR AAM, how ever if India buys the Rafale in G-G mode, India can use only those missiles, and already certified French made Air to Ground Missiles, However India almost has handful of many kind of Munition projects, from small Guided PGM's to long range Cruise missiles, to integrate those missiles in newer platform India should need the IP rights,

    If India signs the 36 only Rafale Deal, India needs to invest very large amount in the Rafale deal only for Munitions, The Rafale is pure multi role, so need of Multiple Air to Air missiles and Ground missiles is much needed, although if IAF forced to give those half a numbers to SFC, then the IAF gets  very less Rafale's only,

    Although France almost setups a huge infrastructures in India to manufacture the Rafale, the recent Snecma Joint venture with Indian Maz Aerospace is an small Example, So it's expected the deal could be more numbers, as many defense analysts and former Air force officials saying the same the 36 numbers could be increased because of the Air forces Requirement of more than 90 Aircraft's in same category, as recently Indian Government backed Saab Gripen offers the same to IAF, Americans comes with Scorpion and F 16 IN offers, However IAF neglects all such deals and Sticks with the Rafale only for all the above mentioned Aspects,





    IAF not only need some 90+ Rafale Jets, they need more than 200 Light Combat Aircraft, to replace those old MiG Series, as some News reports emerges India could scrap the LCA, However IAF always favor to the LCA, only large number of LCA along with Rafale only pose a series deterrence against the large Chinese  Air force.